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Full Vehicle Engineering

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CSM has over fifteen years of experience in providing engineering services support for full vehicle simulations like:

  • Strength and Durability
  • Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH)
  • Crash-worthiness
  • Vehicle Dynamics
  • Fluid Flow in internal systems
  • External flow

Strength and Durability

Predicting the vehicle durability is addressed by performing Static Linear Analysis followed by Fatigue Life Analysis.

These models contain sufficient details to predict stress levels in local areas of the structure and maintain an overall constant mesh density. Appropriate material models are considered with proper loads and boundary conditions. The stress results are used as input into a fatigue post processor, providing fatigue life predictions on an element-by-element basis.

CSM has comprehensive capabilities in carrying simulations on Strength and Durability on BIW, ExhaustSystems, Stiffness Calculations of Closures, Hood System, Tail Gate, Mirror assembly, Fuel lid etc.

Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH):

NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) Optimization is a critical area of application in the Automotive Industry having a direct impact on the Passenger Comfort.
NVH CAE involves Frequency Response Analysis of the complete vehicle and its Acoustic cavity. The full vehicle assembly mainly includes BIW, Frame, Closures, Interior trims, Steering, Seating, CPM, Console, Gas tank, tyres etc and the acoustic cavity.
Tactile and acoustic responses to the excitations are computed at the areas of interest.
Tactile responses include vibrations in the seat track, toe pan and steering column, while acoustic responses include sound levels at driver and passenger ear and other specific locations in the acoustic cavity.
Typical full vehicle NVH simulations involve forces that may be external or internal to the vehicle. External forces include road induced shake/noise and aerodynamic forces due to contact with the surrounding air. Internal forces include powertrain combustion reaction forces, powertrain unbalance forces, tire/wheel unbalance forces, driveline unbalance forces (axle etc.) and brake induced forces.
CSM has extensive experience building Finite-element models, NTF, VTF and counter-measures.

Crash Worthiness and Safety

Traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of mortality in modern society. Car safety became the most important issue very early on in the development of automobiles. Injuries due to road accidents are a problem that can be controlled considerably if adequate attention is given to accident and injury prevention strategies. Therefore, car manufacturers now incorporate a wide range of passive safety devices and features into their vehicle, including airbags, collapsible steering columns, side door beams, etc.

CSM is supporting OEMs in FEM Modeling and Analysis for Crash Worthiness and Safety requirements. CSM has experience of building full vehicle models in excess of 10 Million degrees of freedom. Such large sized FE models are created for multiple vehicle variants for crash analysis.

CSM engineers understand the industry standards such as FMVSS, ECE, ENCAP, IIHS regulations. CSM has performed various types of impact analysis such as frontal impact (rigid barrier, offset barrier test), Side impact and Rear impact and roof impact studies. CSM has performed system level impact studies for Front and Rear bumper impact, Lens Housing Impact etc.

CSM supports many off-road vehicle manufacturers for performing crash studies. CSM has performed ROPS and FOPS studies of cabin structures of Off Road vehicles for various ISO standards.

Vehicle Dynamics / Multi Body Dynamics

CSM has extensive experience in Full Vehicle Simulations in Ride and Handling. Our vehicle dynamics engineers have worked on various suspensions types and successfully achieved the correlation between test results and virtual models.

Some of the typical activities involved in vehicle dynamics which we have carried out are as follows:

Half Vehicle Simulations:

  • Kinematics and Compliance analysis

    Kinematic analysis is performed to set the kinematics parameters i.e. Wheel Rate, Ride Steer, Ride Camber, Roll Steer, Roll Camber, Roll Center Height etc.
    Compliance analysis is done to find out suspension stiffness under the various vehicle loading i.e. Braking force, Traction force and Cornering force.
    For steering subsystem, kinematics analysis is performed to find out turning circle radius, lock angles, Ackerman percentage etc.

  • Static loads evaluation for durability analysis

    Different load cases are defined and subsequently used for evaluation of loads at different components. The loads are extracted for the durability evaluation of the suspension components and chassis.

  • Hard points envelope
  • Static Steering Effort and Rack Load calculations

Full Vehicle Simulations:

  • Ride and Handing Analysis of Full Vehicle Model

    Handling analysis of full vehicle like Steady State Circular Test, Single lane and Double lane change, Swept Sine Analysis, Sine with Dwell, Fish Hook Analysis, Acceleration and Braking event are performed to find out vehicle parameters such as under-steer gradient, suspension roll gradient, peak lateral acceleration, yaw rate, steady state gain, etc.
    Ride analysis defines the comfort of the vehicle. It involves evaluating ride indices and optimizing accelerations of different components using various methods like Road simulations (digitalized roads), four-post testrig etc.

  • Road Load Data Analysis

    This analysis is important to understand the actual loads observed at various component in vehicle life time. Vehicle life is classified (torture track recipe) in various tracks and events and then vehicle and its components are virtually analyzed for failure on such cases. Different vehicle subsystems are analyzed for durability using the loads from this analysis.

  • Steering returnability
  • Vehicle modal map

With increasing demand to accelerate product development, Driving Simulator has been bridging the gap between real-world testing and technical simulation. For such activities to succeed, it is very essential to have a validated vehicle model which can integrate with different SiL and HiL systems to provide proper responses to the driver’s input.

Computational Fluid Dynamics:

CSM team has extensive experience in carrying out projects in the area of internal and external flow with conjugate heat transfer (including solid parts with fluid). We have solved problems involving multiphase physics with problem sizes exceeding 20 million cells. It involves injection of liquid particles in gas stream. Heating Ventilation and Air Condition analysis were carried with different types of insulation and solar radiation for outdoor vehicle applications. Some of the major application areas are listed below:

  • Flow in under-hood compartment
  • Engine cooling simulation
  • Exhaust systems
  • External aero dynamics

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